International Bioacoustics Council (IBAC)
Biophon IX (1)
Biophon SUMMER 1996 Vol. IX No. 1 (Resumed from 1983)
NEWSLETTER OF THE INTERNATIONAL BIOACOUSTICS COUNCIL
EDITED and PRINTED by M. Rebbeck CONTACT ADDRESS Dept. of Industrial Technology, Bradford University,
Phone +44 1274 384242 Fax +44 1274 381333 Bradford,West Yorkshire, BD7 1DP, UK.
Web Edition by G. Pavan, Centro Interdisciplinare di Bioacustica e Ricerche Ambientali
WELCOME FROM THE CHAIRMAN
IN THIS ISSUE
At the 13th IBAC Symposium hosted by the Natural History Museum of Aarhus, Denmark, in April 1994 it was decided at a general meeting of all participants to recommend:-
REPORT OF THE LAST MEETING - BY R. RANFT
THE INTERNATIONAL BIOACOUSTICS COUNCIL (IBAC)
MINUTES OF THE FIRST ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
1. The Chairman, Patrick Sellar, opened the meeting by explaining the need to raise IBAC's status and improve its organisation. Until now, there had been no formal membership which at least meant that subscriptions had not been needed. By raising IBAC's profile, it might be possible to get grants to students to attend meetings. He would continue as Chairman for a year. G. Pavan would succeed him at the next symposium in 1996 in Italy.
2. Election of Executive Committee.
3. Consideration and adoption of IBAC Rules.
Clause 2.2: there were several objections that the wording implied a distinction between scientists and field workers. It was agreed to change the sentence to read "To encourage and effect liaison between amateurs and professionals working in bioacoustics."
Clause 3.4 change to read: "The Executive Committee shall have the power to expel from its number any of its officers or Committee Members who have failed to attend..."
Clause 5.1 change to read: "Members shall be required to pay an Annual Subscription of such an amount and at such times as may be proposed by the Executive Committee and accepted by the membership at an AGM."
It was agreed to add an additional clause permitting future alterations to the Rules.
Y. Espmark proposed adoption of the rules. Seconded by M. Rebbeck; carried.
4. Venue for 1996 Symposium and second AGM.
5. Membership and subscriptions.
7. Any other business.
The Chairman thanked the organiser of the Potsdam meeting, Prof. Dieter Wallschläger, and closed the meeting at 19:05 hours.
FORTHCOMING MEETINGS AND EVENTS
THE NEXT IBAC MEETING
IBAC - International Bioacoustics Council Conference 1996
Pavia is located 40 Km south of Milan, in the northern part of Italy. The nearest airport is Milan-Linate. The city is located on the train line Milan-Genoa. Frequent trains leave from Milano Centrale (reach Pavia in about 30 minutes) and from Genoa (in about 1 hour).
welcome you to attend an evening of lectures and light refreshments beginning at 18:30 hrs.
THURSDAY 28th NOVEMBER at the British Libray's Novello meeting rooms, Sheraton Street, London W1.
PROFESSOR P.J.B. SLATER (University of St. Andrews)
DR. GILLIAN GILBERT (Research Biologist, RSPB)
Copyright is a complex legal issue but is becoming important to all owners of animal sound recordings, as new markets for using audio are opening up and commercial organisations search for ever more obscure noises to enrich their TV programmes, adverts or CD-ROMs. The laws of copyright vary from one country to another, but a few words on the subject as they apply to the British law might be helpful. In Britain, copyright applies to any sound recording and can be used to prevent or control its exploitation. Formal registration of a recording is unnecessary as the rights are automatically implied (as they are for photographs) as soon as the recording is made. Music recordings have more complicated rights in that the composer, performers and publishers of the music and lyrics all have separate rights. In unpublished bioacoustic recordings, on the other hand, the only rights in the recordings are those of the recording itself - the performers have no rights! For published recordings, remember that the publisher may also have separate rights in the publication. Copyright of bioacoustic recordings is usually owned by the recordist unless the recording is commissioned by another person or institution. It can be held jointly and may be transferred or sold on to others. It is an infringement of copyright law to copy, allow the playing in public or broadcasting or other distribution of a recording, without the owner's consent. Copyright in the UK exists for 50 years after a recording is made, but an EC directive of 1995 to harmonise copyright in different countries means that the term will soon extend to 70 years.
The owner has the right to retain rights in the recording while controlling its use by licensing. When licensing your recordings, it is important to restrict the terms of the licence if you wish to retain control of the recordings in the future. The restriction should limit the use of a recording in time, space, media and be production-specific and non-exclusive. To explain this better, a sample contract for multimedia publication is given below:
Non-exclusive license to reproduce recordings of [sounds listed] for inclusion in [name of publication] under the following terms and conditions:
If you are licensing sounds which are a small part of the whole production, it is usual to ask for a once-only fee instead of a royalty based on sales or broadcast time, because royalty payments are administratively complex. Fees vary widely according to the duration of the recording, prominence of the recording in the production, expected sales, whether use is purely commercial or more educational, and so on.
A final note: a sonogram of a recording is not regarded as infringing copyright, but it is courteous as well as scientifically accepted practice to cite the source of any recording (e.g. archive, or audio publication) and the recordist next to the graph.
The following people act as local contacts for IBAC. If you know of anyone in your area who may benefit from IBAC or hear of any activities which should be more widely known please get in touch with your local organiser.
USEFUL INTERNET CONTACTS
Center for Bioacoustics and Environmental Research, Pavia University, Italy
Bioacoustics and Sonar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University of Technology, UK
A BRIEF HISTORY OF IBAC
For the benefit of readers who may be unaware of IBAC's past a short history has been written by the Chairman - Patrick Sellar:
IBAC was founded in Denmark in September 1969 "with the object of promoting international participation throughout the entire field of bioacoustic activity". Its lofty title "reflects the intention that it should act as a referendum for and generally help in any way possible those who are engaged in the scientific study of biological sounds".
Looking back over the twenty-seven years since those first ambitions were declared at the meeting in Århus, one can report simply that it spawned fourteen international symposia in eight different countries and sponsored the publication of the news bulletin Biophon running to twenty-four issues. Biophon was the means by which IBAC members kept in contact and received news of impending conferences. Membership of IBAC and indeed Biophon itself was entirely free, the cost of production and mailing being born all those years by the Danish Natural Science Research Foundation.
Thus there was never any need to collect subscriptions or to encumber the executive committee with such impedimenta as a treasurer, accountant or auditor. An ideal institution, one would say.
Unfortunately, the Danish economy took a downward turn in 1983 and our grant was terminated. The final issue of Biophon appeared in July that year but, with the help of mail shots put out by the National Sound Archive in London, we continued to hold conferences, the latest having taken place in October 1995 at Potsdam in Germany.
Subscribers to Biophon, numbering around 450 world-wide, were used as the sounding-board for planning the new, bigger and definitive journal Bioacoustics.
IBAC will continue to support the journal in every way possible. The headquarters of IBAC for 25 years was the Natural History Museum at Århus, Denmark.
From now it will transfer to the National Sound Archive (Wildlife Section), of the British Library in London. Links with Århus will nevertheless survive strongly through the presence there of IBAC's President, Dr. Poul Bondesen and the very supportive efforts of Dr. Poul Hansen who hosted the 1994 IBAC symposium in Møls.
FUTURE ISSUES - EDITORS NOTE
This is a rather formal start to the new Biophon. I hope to expand in the next issue with more contributions from members, including thumbnail sketches of activities in specific countries or in particular topic areas.
Letters to the Editor would be very welcome especially putting forward ideas for raising the profile of Bioacoustics generally.
The next issue will be in January 1997.